Setting and Achieving Targets and Actions

About This Opportunity

NDCs 3.0 provide an opportunity to raise ambition through committing to targets and actions and establishing frameworks or pathways to enable implementation.

Since the last cycle, all Parties have agreed to the UAE Framework for Global Climate Resilience, which outlined 11 specific targets to support the achievement of the global goal of adaptation, to achieve by 2030 and beyond. Parties may choose to revise and align existing adaptation targets and actions to the framework targets, and/or may choose to compliment these with additional targets and actions that address specific national realities. Parties may also choose to communicate their intent or progress on achieving targets and actions, without identifying additional targets or actions. This Opportunity offers several strategies that may help Parties get started on updating the adaptation chapter of the NDC.

Reflecting the Global Stocktake

The GST urges swift and accelerated action to achieve that global goal on adaptation, taking into account the UAE Framework for Global Climate Resilience. The UAE Framework targets to achieve by 2030, and progressively beyond, are:

Paragraph 63: Thematic Targets

  1. “Significantly reducing climate-induced water scarcity and enhancing climate resilience to water-related hazards towards a climate-resilient water supply, climate-resilient sanitation and towards access to safe and affordable potable water for all
  2. “Attaining climate-resilient food and agricultural production and supply and distribution of food, as well as increasing sustainable and regenerative production and equitable access to adequate food and nutrition for all
  3. “Attaining resilience against climate change related health impacts, promoting climate-resilient health services, and significantly reducing climate-related morbidity and mortality, particularly in the most vulnerable communities”
  4. Reducing climate impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity, and accelerating the use of ecosystem-based adaptation and nature-based solutions, including through their management, enhancement, restoration and conservation and the protection of terrestrial, inland water, mountain, marine and coastal ecosystems”
  5. “Increasing the resilience of infrastructure and human settlements to climate change impacts to ensure basic and continuous essential services for all, and minimizing climate-related impacts on infrastructure and human settlements
  6. “Substantially reducing the adverse effects of climate change on poverty eradication and livelihoods, in particular by promoting the use of adaptive social protection measures for all
  7. Protecting cultural heritage from the impacts of climate-related risks by developing adaptive strategies for preserving cultural practices and heritage sites and by designing climate-resilient infrastructure, guided by traditional knowledge, Indigenous Peoples’ knowledge and local knowledge systems

Paragraph 64: Process-related targets

  1. “Impact, vulnerability and risk assessment: by 2030 all Parties have conducted up-to-date assessments of climate hazards, climate change impacts and exposure to risks and vulnerabilities and have used the outcomes of these assessments to inform their formulation of national adaptation plans, policy instruments, and planning processes and/or strategies, and by 2027 all Parties have established multi-hazard early warning systems, climate information services for risk reduction and systematic observation to support improved climate-related data, information and services”
  2. “Planning: by 2030 all Parties have in place country-driven, gender-responsive, participatory and fully transparent national adaptation plans, policy instruments, and planning processes and/or strategies, covering, as appropriate, ecosystems, sectors, people and vulnerable communities, and have mainstreamed adaptation in all relevant strategies and plans”
  3. “Implementation: by 2030 all Parties have progressed in implementing their national adaptation plans, policies and strategies and, as a result, have reduced the social and economic impacts of the key climate hazards identified in the assessments referred to above”
  4. “Monitoring, evaluation and learning: by 2030 all Parties have designed, established and operationalized a system for monitoring, evaluation and learning for their national adaptation efforts and have built the required institutional capacity to fully implement the system”

The following strategies could help to implement this Opportunity:

Taking stock of targets and actions previously communicated in the NAP, previous NDC, or other national adaptation planning activities:

Understanding what has been committed and the progress that has been made to achieve these targets and actions can help identify opportunities and gaps to address in the NDC update.

Exploring and analyzing adaptation metrics:

This can help understand the degree of progress towards positive adjustment to climate and its effects from previous adaptation investments or implemented actions. The Adaptation Metrics Mapping Evaluation framework could be used to understand successes, challenges, opportunities, and gaps within existing adaptation action.

Reviewing Monitoring, Evaluation, and Learning processes:

This can help understand progress, results, outcomes, and learnings that could be integrated into updated or additional adaptation action. MEL processes may exist under other national planning activities, such as the NAP process. See the NAP Global Network’s “Toolkit for Monitoring, Evaluation, and Learning for National Adaptation Plan Processes” for guidance on developing and using MEL frameworks in national planning. See “Opportunity: Improving Interlinkages Between NDCs and NAPs” for more strategies on integrating and streamlining efforts.

Triangulating between existing adaptation targets and actions, identified vulnerabilities, targets set under the UAE Framework, and other established national or international reporting:

Countries may wish to review existing targets and actions against national, sectoral, and local vulnerability and risk assessments to climate change to understand if they appropriately and effectively address vulnerabilities and risks. These can also be reviewed against the targets set under the UAE Framework to establish alignment between national and international priorities, and against additional nationally or internationally established reporting, such as under SDG Goal 13 “Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts”.

Aligning targets with thematic and process-related targets under the UAE Framework for Global Climate Resilience:

Whether the targets are existing, under revision, or new, it may be helpful to align these under the thematic goals or processes identified under the UAE Framework. This can directly demonstrate ambition and progress in contributing to the achievement of the global goal of adaptation.

Grounding actions and targets in national realities:

Countries may want to engage closely with a diverse network of stakeholders, representing all of society, to ensure that targets reflect national realities, and actions are achievable within the national context. This can also ensure actions contribute to equity and justice, and facilitate deeper stakeholder understanding of actions and targets, increasing the ability to implement them. See “Opportunity: Incorporating All-of-Society in Adaptation Planning” and “Route: Mobilizes All-of-Government and All-of-Society.

Communicating actions and support needs to achieve targets:

Countries may go beyond stating targets to demonstrating how the targets can be achieved through specific actions, for example, by improving enabling conditions. This can increase the robustness and credibility of the targets and encourage the provision of international support.

Using the NAP process to build or revise adaptation targets in the NDC:

The GIZ guide on Linking NAP and NDC processes, specifically section 6, provides guiding questions to consider at different stages of progress on NAP development. Examples of strategies include utilizing NAP guidance materials, aligning governance processes, and identifying resources, expertise, and finance that can be utilized in NDC development. See “Opportunity: Improving Interlinkages Between NDCs and NAPs” for more on NDC-NAP linkages.

Improving the quality of actions and targets through identification and appraisal conducted during the NAP process:

Countries may seek to use the rigorous identification and appraisal process under NAP processes to improve the quality of actions and targets communicated in the NDC. For more strategies on better NDC-NAP integration, see “Opportunity: Improving Interlinkages Between NDCs and NAPs.

Exploring GCF funding for formulation and implementation of NAPs:

This may contribute to resources for the development of adaptation targets and actions. See “Route: Unlocks Finance” for more strategies on how to access international finance.

Country Examples

Rwanda’s second NDC included quantified targets and indicators for adaptation and resilience. These were developed through a participatory approach, with stakeholder consensus on priority interventions, baselines, and targets. By developing targets in collaboration with stakeholders, Rwanda was able to detail interventions with indicators, implementing entities, timelines, funding estimates, and mitigation co-benefits. These details provide a foundation for implementation; stakeholders involved not only understand, but also support the scope and scale of action, and are bought into the expectations on what is required to achieve the target. Rwanda complemented stakeholder engagement with criteria-based evaluation of priority interventions and the development of a monitoring and evaluation framework to strengthen national capacity, with the aim of using this to mobilize resources. (Source: “Republic of Rwanda Updated Nationally Determined Contribution,” UNFCCC).

Papua New Guinea (PNG) included adaptation targets in their NDC that addressed key issues within four priority sectors: agriculture, health, transport, and infrastructure. The targets were developed by conducting a series of surveys and workshops. which included subnational and sector vulnerability and adaptation assessments, data collection, and multi-criteria analysis, and are measured against indicators specific to their relevant sectors. PNG provides an example of how the NDC can be used to communicate high-level priorities.  At the time, it had not completed its NAP, and was planning to use these targets to inform its NAP priorities, setting out implementing measures and mechanisms to achieve the targets. (Source: “Papua New Guinea’s Enhanced Nationally Determined Contribution,” UNFCCC).

Colombia developed indicators and guidelines to monitor and evaluate the delivery of its NAP. The design of its National Indicator System for Adaptation to Climate Change (SNIACC) was based on the review of over 150 indicators, with 34 selected and grouped according to their components of climate risk (threat, exposure, sensitivity, adaptive capacity, and impact). The indicators enable an in-depth understanding of vulnerability and risk across key sectors. (Source: “Colombia’s Progress in Developing a National Monitoring and Evaluation System for Climate Change Adaptation,” NAP Global Network).

Further Resources

2030 Climate Solutions: Implementation roadmap (UNFCCC, 2023)
The 2030 Climate Solutions represent an integrated framework refined by the Marrakech Partnership under the leadership of UN Climate Change High-Level Champions (HLCs), designed to bring together existing 2030 frameworks and tools into a comprehensive and coherent climate action roadmap through specific real-economy and on-the-ground solutions by 2030. The roadmap includes example targets and actions to achieve targets across specific sectors: energy, transport, industry, land-use, ocean and coastal zones, water, human settlements, and finance.

Adaptation Actions in the NDC Partnership Plans: Opportunities for Alignment with NAP Processes (NAP Global Network, 2019)
This study identifies opportunities to align adaptation actions in NDCs and NAP processes through an analysis of the NDC Partnership Plans. These are three-year short-term plans focused on enabling actions to advance NDC implementation.

The Role of the NAP Process in Translating NDC Adaptation Goals into Action (GIZ, 2017)
GIZ provides guidance for policymakers, decision-makers, and practitioners to link the NAP process with the NDCs. It highlights approaches to NDC development, opportunities and challenges in linking NAPs and NDCs, practical implications of linkage, and options for developing and implementing NDC adaptation goals through the NAP process.

Adaptation Targets (weADAPT, 2011)
This article describes a method for setting adaptation targets tailored for developing countries to mainstream adaptation into their NDCs. The provision of metrics to measure progress and guide resource allocation is identified as a way to overcome challenges related to adaptation mainstreaming.

Report on Global Goal on Adaptation Technical Paper (UNFCCC, 2022)
This UNFCCC technical paper collates and synthesizes indicators, targets, and metrics for reviewing progress towards the GGA. Building upon the Adaptation Committee’s 2021 paper, it references the Paris Agreement and incorporates reports from the UNFCCC, and other organizations. The technical paper functions as a resource for Parties developing their NDCs 3.0 by offering definitions of key terms, descriptions of various systems in place for tracking progress on adaptation or related areas and, pointing to other useful resources.  The annex summarizes various methodologies and approaches that Parties may find helpful.

Planning for NDC implementation: A Quick-Start Guide (CDKN, 2024)
The purpose of the Quick-Start Guide is to support developing countries in implementing their NDCs. Whilst it is focused on implementation, the reference manual includes a module on setting up governance arrangements and institutional processes, with approaches that can be tailored to individual countries.

Adaptation Metrics Mapping Evaluation Framework (Adaptation Metrics, 2021)
Overview of the context and approach under the AMME framework, which aims to guide the formulation of good practice in the choice and development of appropriate metrics for the wide array of different contexts related to climate adaptation.

Toolkit for Monitoring, Evaluation, and Learning for National Adaptation Plan Processes (NAP Global Network, 2024) This toolkit provides practical guidance for the development and continuous improvement of MEL systems for NAP processes. It is informed by lessons learned from countries around the global that either already implement or are developing MEL systems as part of their NAP processes. The toolkit uses the framing of NAP processes to refer to the umbrella of all national adaptation planning processes, including adaptation components under the NDCs.

How This Links to Other Routes

Identifying, selecting, and detailing actions to achieve targets can create a path for implementation. When identifying and detailing actions there are interactions with the other Routes. Some important linkages include the following. Navigate to these to read more:

Route: Technically Sound and Transparent Documents

Actions and targets should be designed and detailed based on science and robust evidence, traditional knowledge, and supported by technically sound processes. Improving data availability, accessibility, and quality can support better decision-making.

Route: Technology and Capacity-Building as Needs and Enablers

Communicating needs to achieve targets and implement actions is crucial for gaining international support and informing national priorities.

Route: Unlocks Finance

Communicating progress on actions and how they achieve targets can help clarify investment challenges, needs, and opportunities.

Route: Mobilizes All-Of-Government and All-Of-Society

Targets and actions must be based on national realities, identified and prioritized through engagement with key stakeholders, sectors, and communities, appropriately to adequately address the needs of all.

Route: Delivers a Just and Equitable Transition

Selecting, prioritizing, and detailing actions to achieve targets, requires considering the wider implications on society, particularly the most vulnerable, to ensure actions are just and contribute to an equitable transition.

Route: Aligned to the Paris Agreement Temperature Goal

Considering the resilience of mitigation actions or the effect of mitigation actions on climate vulnerabilities and risks contributes to robust, holistic climate action that builds on opportunities for co-benefits.

Support Opportunities

Support is available to countries to apply the learning from the navigator and develop ambitious NDCs 3.0.

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Contribute new guidance, tools and strategies to be reflected in the NDC 3.0.