Mobilizes All-Of-Government and All-Of-Society

About This Route

Supporting enhanced ambition and accelerated implementation of transformational climate actions will require both engagement and action from all stakeholder groups, including All-of-Government as well as non-Party stakeholders, particularly civil society, business, financial institutions, cities and subnational authorities, Indigenous Peoples, local communities, youth and research institutions. Implementation of NDCs can be more effective where there is a whole-of-government approach. Anchoring NDCs into domestic planning processes and institutional arrangements, undertaking effective engagements and dialogues, and ensuring country needs and priorities are reflected, are some NDC supporting processes that can ensure an effective, ambitious, resilient and equitable transition. Furthermore, many local and regional governments and private sector entities are leading the way on ambitious climate action. Their engagement and integration into NDC processes can feed upwards to both raise ambition, and accelerate implementation through their proximity to people and businesses who can action change.

Whole-of-society processes can also help to achieve transformative change, leveraging the existing capacities and commitments of a diverse set of stakeholders as agents of change, to make NDCs more ambitious and implementable. Engaging disenfranchised and marginalized populations is also important to help ensure that NDC processes and outcomes are just, fair and respectful of human rights. Incorporating All-of-Government and All-of-Society approaches as part of the NDC process can ensure that NDCs reflect these wider actions and plans, integrate vertically and horizontally, and that underrepresented voices are heard.

Paris Agreement and International Context

The need for engagement and action on climate change by All-of-Society has been recognized for some time in the UNFCCC process. At COP 21 in Paris in 2015, it was agreed that mobilizing stronger and more ambitious climate action by all Parties and non-Party stakeholders was urgently required to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement. Decision 1/CP.21, adoption of the Paris Agreement agreed, “to uphold and promote regional and international cooperation in order to mobilize stronger and more ambitious climate action by all Parties and non-Party stakeholders, including civil society, the private sector, financial institutions, cities and other subnational authorities, local communities and indigenous peoples”. It also invited non-Party stakeholders to scale up their efforts and support actions to reduce emissions and/or to build resilience and decrease vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change.

During COP 28, 2030 Climate Solutions: an Implementation Roadmap was launched as the contribution of the Marrakech Partnership (MP) for Global Action under the leadership of the High-level Champions (HLCs). It represents an integrated framework designed to bring together the existing frameworks and tools (i.e. Climate Action Pathways, 2030 Breakthroughs, Breakthrough Agenda, Sharm El-Sheikh Adaptation Agenda, Race to Zero, and Race to Resilience campaigns) into a comprehensive and coherent roadmap to mobilize all stakeholders to accelerate climate action through specific real economy and on-the-ground solutions.

All-of-Government approaches are also reflected in the Paris Agreement, noting that strengthening institutional arrangements and capacities is a key enabler of implementation.

Reporting on both processes is also required as part of the enhanced transparency framework. Reporting on All-of-Government and All-of-Society processes is also required as part of the information to enhance clarity, transparency, and understanding (ICTU). Decision 4/CMA .1, annex I Paragraph 4(a) requires that parties provide “Information on the planning processes that the Party undertook to prepare it including, as appropriate. (i) Domestic institutional arrangements, public participation and engagement with local communities and Indigenous Peoples, in a gender-responsive manner”.

Reflecting the Global Stocktake

The first Global Stocktake (GST) acknowledges “that climate change is a common concern of humankind and that Parties should, when taking action to address climate change, respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights, the right to a clean, healthy and sustainable environment, the right to health, the rights of Indigenous Peoples, local communities, migrants, children, persons with disabilities and people in vulnerable situations and the right to development, as well as gender equality, empowerment of women and intergenerational equity.”

The GST also “reaffirms that sustainable and just solutions to the climate crisis must be founded on meaningful and effective social dialogue and participation of all stakeholders, including Indigenous Peoples, local communities and governments, women, and youth and children” (Paragraph 9).

The GST further emphasizes the importance of All-of-Government and All-of-Society approaches within specific outcomes. For example, on adaptation:

  • Paragraph 45: “Recognizes the significant efforts of developing country Parties in formulating and implementing national adaptation plans, adaptation communications and nationally determined contributions, as appropriate, including through their domestic expenditure, as well as their increased efforts to align their national development plans;”
  • Paragraph 64. (b) further notes that “by 2030 all Parties… have mainstreamed adaptation in all relevant strategies and plans.”

On means of implementation and support:

  • On finance, Paragraph 70: “recognizes the role of the private sector and highlights the need to strengthen policy guidance, incentives, regulations and enabling conditions to reach the scale of investments required to achieve a global transition towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development and encourages Parties to continue enhancing their enabling environments”.
  • On technology development and transfer, Paragraph 103: “urges Parties [to address technology gaps and barriers and] strengthen cooperative action, including with non-Party stakeholders, particularly with the private sector, to rapidly scale up the deployment of existing technologies, the fostering of innovation and the development and transfer of new technologies”.
  • On capacity, Paragraph 114: “Acknowledges that developing country Parties continue to have persistent gaps in capacity and urgent needs for effectively implementing the Paris Agreement, including related to skills development, institutional capacity for governance and coordination, technical assessment and modelling, strategic policy development and implementation and capacity retention and recognizes the urgent need to address these gaps and needs that are constraining effective implementation of the Paris Agreement”.

The GST particularly highlights the role of non-Party stakeholders under International Cooperation, Paragraphs 158-162:

  • Paragraph 158: “Acknowledges the important role and active engagement of non-Party stakeholders, particularly civil society, business, financial institutions, cities and subnational authorities, Indigenous Peoples, local communities, youth and research institutions, in supporting Parties and contributing to the significant collective progress towards the Paris Agreement temperature goal and in addressing and responding to climate change and enhancing ambition, including progress through other relevant intergovernmental processes”.
  • 159. Welcomes current international cooperative efforts and voluntary initiatives for enhancing climate action and support by Parties and non-Party stakeholders, including through the sharing of information, good practices, experiences, lessons learned, resources and solutions;
  • 160. Also welcomes the leadership and efforts of the high-level champions in supporting the effective participation of non-Party stakeholders in the global stocktake;
  • 161. Urges Parties and non-Party stakeholders to join efforts to accelerate delivery through inclusive, multilevel, gender-responsive and cooperative action;
  • 162. Encourages international cooperation and the exchange of views and experience among non-Party stakeholders at the local, subnational, national and regional levels, including conducting joint research, personnel training, practical projects, technical exchanges, project investment and standards cooperation.”

Guiding Questions

Use the following guiding questions to reflect and identify the most nationally relevant, appropriate and impactful opportunities within this Route, to explore more deeply: 

Did the last NDC establish and maintain an NDC lead and/or group across key ministries and departments, with a mandate and process to manage reporting and future updates? Is the team that compiled the previous NDC, and the data, knowledge and information still available? Is there a process in place to coordinate and engage across government to support the NDC 3.0?

Did the last NDC process consider alignment with other domestic and international plans and strategies? Are there updated sectoral plans or priorities to reflect in the NDC 3.0? Do other ministries within government have NDC-related targets or indicators to report on, including ministries for education, health, labor, social affairs, etc.?

Are any local and regional governments engaged in ambitious climate initiatives or networks, and have they set out climate plans and targets? Is there a mechanism for their engagement as part of the NDC process or broader climate planning?

Was there inclusive stakeholder engagement and communication in the last NDC? If yes, was the role of different segments of society as agents of change identified and upheld by the NDC, as opposed to only addressing these populations as groups in vulnerable situations? 

Did the last NDC engage with the private sector? Are there private sector entities with ambitious climate plans that are actively investing in the country who could be mobilized to enhance ambition and implementation?

How This Links to Other Routes

Integrating ownership of visions, commitments and actions in an NDC across government and all of society, can support implementation. Navigate to these to read more:

Route: Aligned to the Paris Agreement Temperature Goal

The highest level of mitigation ambition and action can be better realized through leveraging opportunities at all levels, reflecting sectoral and non-Party stakeholder plans and actions

Route: Aligned to Paris Agreement Global Goal on Adaptation

The most vulnerable and at risk, directly or indirectly from climate change, can be engaged and informed, and plans and commitments can incorporate their voices and experiences

Route: Unlocks Finance

Finance and funding can be channeled effectively across all levels of government and society to realize ambitious implementation

Route: Delivers a Just and Equitable Transition

Mobilizing across government and society supports those most impacted to be incorporated into planning and implementation strategies to ensure a just and equitable transition

Route: Technology and Capacity-Building as Needs and Enablers

Considering technology and capacity needs and enablers at all levels of government and society can drive more effective implementation

Route: Technically Sound and Transparent Documents

Data and tracking processes can be enhanced through greater cooperation, and strengthening cooperation enhances transparency

Support Opportunities

Support is available to countries to apply the learning from the navigator and develop ambitious NDCs 3.0.

Share Additional Resources

Contribute new guidance, tools and strategies to be reflected in the NDC 3.0.