Technology and Capacity-Building as Needs and Enablers

About This Route

In keeping with the requirements of the Paris Agreement and Global Stocktake, developing countries are encouraged to identify the support they need to implement both mitigation and adaptation components of their NDC. Support needs may include finance, technology transfer, and capacity-building. This Route focuses on capacity-building and technology transfer; see “Route: Unlocks Finance” for information on reflecting financial needs.

Needs assessments can be conducted during the planning process, and countries may choose to be explicit in their NDCs about the type and amount of support needed to achieve full implementation of their targets. Considering these needs early in the planning process supports successful implementation of the NDC.

How does considering needs early in the planning process support successful NDC implementation?
  • Facilitate the government’s buy-in: Awareness-raising and engagement of the high-level decision makers help mobilize resources to implement NDCs and to enhance ambitions as well as integrate NDC into the national development priorities.
  • Facilitate flows of support/technology: Explicitly documenting support/technology needs facilitates flow of support/technology from developed to developing countries. Understanding and detailing technical assistance needs can help direct countries towards appropriate support providers.
  • Facilitate technology transfer and innovation: Capacity-building supports the uptake and deployment of climate-friendly technologies by building the skills and expertise needed to adopt and integrate innovative solutions.
  • Ensure in-country stakeholders possess the skills needed for economic transformation and climate adaptation: Capacity-building and technical assistance initiatives help countries develop the necessary institutional, technical, and human capacities to undertake mitigation and adaptation actions, and ultimately implement their NDCs effectively.
  • Ensure the highest possible ambition: Capacity-building, technical assistance, and technology transfer all support countries to undertake more ambitious climate actions.
  • Support stakeholder engagement: By identifying governmental capacity-building needs related to stakeholder engagement, countries can ensure they receive the support needed to introduce/strengthen institutional arrangements for the implementation of the NDC, and ensure all stakeholders and groups are engaged in the NDC process. Capacity-building for stakeholders themselves can also promote inclusive and participatory decision-making processes by building the capacity of stakeholders to engage effectively in climate action.
  • Support long-term sustainability: Capacity-building fosters the long-term sustainability of climate action by building the institutional and human capacities needed to support ongoing implementation and monitoring efforts. By identifying capacity-building needs in areas such as institutional governance, policy coherence, and data management, countries can ensure that their NDCs are implemented effectively and that progress towards their climate goals is sustained over time.
Arrangements that help to address country support needs
  • Technology Mechanism (UNFCCC): Established under the Convention and serving the Paris Agreement (Article 10.2), the Technology Mechanism is a framework established to facilitate the development and transfer of environmentally sound technologies to support both mitigation and adaptation, particularly in developing countries.
    • Technology Executive Committee (UNFCCC) is the policy body of Technology Mechanism. It identifies policies that can accelerate the development and transfer of low-emission and climate resilient technologies, and regularly releases technology publications and provides policy recommendations to Parties.
    • Climate Technology Centre and Network (UNEP) is the implementation body of Technology Mechanism, providing technical assistance on technology issues to developing countries upon request. It identifies and delivers a wide range of technology solutions, and offers capacity-building and tailored advisory services on policy, legal, and regulatory frameworks to meet the technology requirements of different countries.
  • Paris Committee on Capacity-Building (UNFCCC). Established under the UNFCCC, this body’s primary objectives include identifying capacity-building needs, enhancing cooperation and coordination among relevant stakeholders, and promoting the implementation of capacity-building activities. The PCCB fosters collaboration between actors at various governance levels (local/national/regional/global) and facilitates access to knowledge/information for enhancing climate action in developing countries.
  • Capacity-building Initiative for Transparency (CBIT- NDC Partnership). CBIT provides financial and technical support to developing countries to help them establish or strengthen their national transparency systems, including the collection, reporting, and verification of climate-related data.
  • Initiative for Climate Action Transparency (ICAT). ICAT provides countries with tailored support and practical tools and methodologies to build the robust transparency frameworks needed for effective climate action in sync with national development priorities.
Paris Agreement and International Context

The Paris Agreement recognizes that developing countries will require support to deliver their NDCs, with Article 4.5 stating that “Support shall be provided to developing country Parties for the implementation of this Article, in accordance with Articles 9, 10 and 11, recognizing that enhanced support for developing country Parties will allow for higher ambition in their actions.”

The importance of technology transfer and capacity-building support for developing countries is made clear and explicit in the Paris Agreement. For example, in the following paragraphs:

  • Paragraph 10.2: “Parties, noting the importance of technology for the implementation of mitigation and adaptation actions under this Agreement and recognizing existing technology deployment and dissemination efforts, shall strengthen cooperative action on technology development and transfer.”
  • Paragraph 10.6: “Support, including financial support, shall be provided to developing country Parties for the implementation of this Article, including for strengthening cooperative action on technology development and transfer at different stages of the technology cycle, with a view to achieving a balance between support for mitigation and adaptation. The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall take into account available information on efforts related to support on technology development and transfer for developing country Parties.”
  • Paragraph 11.3: “All Parties should cooperate to enhance the capacity of developing country Parties to implement this Agreement. Developed country Parties should enhance support for capacity-building actions in developing country Parties.”
Reflecting the Global Stocktake

The first Global Stocktake further highlights the need for capacity-building and technology transfer to improve the implementation of NDCs and further achievement of the Paris Agreement goals, as reflected in the following paragraphs:

  • Paragraph 8: ”Emphasizes that finance, capacity-building and technology transfer are critical enablers of climate action.”
  • Paragraph 16c: Notes “that feasible, effective and low-cost mitigation options are already available in all sectors to keep 1.5 °C within reach in this critical decade with the necessary cooperation on technologies and support with the necessary cooperation on technologies and support;”
  • Paragraph 101: “Underlines the fundamental role of technology development and transfer, endogenous technologies and innovation in facilitating urgent adaptation and mitigation action aligned with achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement and sustainable development.”
  • Paragraph 103: “Highlights the persistent gaps and challenges in technology development and transfer and the uneven pace of adoption of climate technologies around the world and urges Parties to address these barriers and strengthen cooperative action, including with non-Party stakeholders, particularly with the private sector, to rapidly scale up the deployment of existing technologies, the fostering of innovation and the development and transfer of new technologies.”
  • Paragraph 111: “Underlines the fundamental role of capacity-building in taking urgent climate action aligned with the goals of the Paris Agreement and appreciates the contributions made in this regard under institutional arrangements under the Paris Agreement, such as the Paris Committee on Capacity-building.”
  • Paragraph 118: “Encourages developing country Parties to identify their capacity-building support needs and to report thereon, as appropriate, in their biennial transparency reports as part of the information referred to in decision 18/CMA.1.”

Guiding Questions

Use the following guiding questions to explore more deeply, reflect and identify the most nationally appropriate and impactful Opportunities within this Route: 

Did the last NDC include the identification of technology needs for key actions/sectors?

Have technology needs for the NDC 3.0 been assessed?

Are there any capacity-building needs for enhancing understanding and/or implementation of the NDC?


The following Opportunities are a non-exhaustive set of options for enhancing identification and support needs for NDC and wider climate change processes in countries.

Identification of financial needs is also highly relevant to this Route, but is discussed in greater detail under Route: Unlocks Finance.

How This Links to Other Routes

Support needs and opportunities will need to be considered across the other Routes to support their effective implementation. Navigate to these to read more:

Route: Aligned to the Paris Agreement Temperature Goal

Being explicit about support needs for mitigation encourages the flow of support to allow timely implementation and achievement of the Paris Agreement temperature goal.

Route: Aligned to Paris Agreement Global Goal on Adaptation

Being explicit about support needs for adaptation encourages the flow of support to allow timely implementation and achievement of PA GGA.

Route: Unlocks Finance

Identification of financial needs, and clear links to NDC goals/actions, support the flow of financial support

Route: Delivers a Just and Equitable Transition

Technology needs considerations can incorporate considerations of the sectoral transformation pathway(s) needed for a Just and Equitable Transition.

Route: Mobilizes All-Of-Government and All-Of-Society

Engaging sector stakeholders in the needs identification process is important for understanding capacity and technology needs in sectors.

Route: Technically Sound and Transparent Documents

Transparent, data-driven evidence bases for climate action improves confidence and clarity on technology needs. Capacity-building around transparency, in particular, is often a support need.

Support Opportunities

Support is available to countries to apply the learning from the navigator and develop ambitious NDCs 3.0.

Share Additional Resources

Contribute new guidance, tools and strategies to be reflected in the NDC 3.0.